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Curtin University
National Drug Research Institute

Preventing Harmful Drug Use In Australia

Former PhD student


Susan Carruthers photo

Dr Susan Carruthers

Research Fellow and Project Leader

Telephone:
Fax:
Email:



s.carruthers@curtin.edu.au

Introduction

Susan Carruthers is a Research Fellow at the National Drug Research Institute. Her major interests are in the area of injecting drug use with particular reference to risks associated with hepatitis C. She has also been involved in projects on tobacco and young people and school drug education. Over the past five years Susan has been responsible for the coordination of a number of state and national projects and is currently working on two projects, one involving prevention of hepatitis C from the perspective of injecting drug users who are already infected with hepatitis C and the other involving a randomized controlled trial of a video based prevention program targeting novice injectors. Susan has recently completed her PhD thesis which investigated the specific risks of transmission of hepatitis C through injecting behaviours, in particular, the social aspects of injecting and injecting drug use.

Susan has published in national and international journals such as Tobacco Control, Journal of School Health, Drug and Alcohol Review, Journal of Substance Use and International Journal of Drug policy.

Qualifications

  • PhD Illicit Drugs and Hepatitis C, National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University
  • MPH Alcohol, Public Health, Curtin University
  • Grad Dip Dietetics, Nutrition and Dietetics, Curtin University
  • BAppSci Nutrition, Nutrition and Dietetics, Curtin University

Research Interests

  • Illicit drug use; Hepatitis C and other blood borne viruses and injecting drug use; prevention of harm associated with injecting drug use.

Publications

Konstenius, M., Leifman, A., van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K., van de Glind, G., Franck, J., Moggi, F., Ramos-Quiroga, J., Levin, F.R., Carpentier, P., Skutle, A., Bu, E.H., Kaye, S., Demetrovics, Z., Barta, C., Auriacombe, M., Fatséas, M., Johnson, B., Faraone, S.V., Allsop, S., Carruthers, S., Schoevers, R.A., Verspreet, S., Dom, G., Koeter, M.W. and van den Brink, W. (2017). Childhood trauma exposure in substance use disorder patients with and without ADHD. Addictive Behaviours, 65, pp. 118-124. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.10.016 [RJ1280] Paper

Kaye, S., Ramos-Quiroga, J., van de Glind, G., Levin, F.R., Faraone, S.V., Allsop, S., Degenhardt, L., Moggi, F., Barta, C., Konstenius, M., Franck, J., Skutle, A., Bu, E.H., Koeter, M.W., Demetrovics, Z., Kapitány-Fövény, M., Schoevers, R.A., van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K., Carpentier, P., Dom, G., Verspreet, S., Crunelle, C.L., Young, J.T., Carruthers, S., Cassar, J., Fatséas, M., Auriacombe, M., Johnson, B., Dunn, M., Slobodin, O. and van den Brink, W. (2016). Persistence and subtype stability of ADHD among substance use disorder treatment seekers. Journal of Attention Disorders. pp. 1-16. DOI: 10.1177/1087054716629217 [RJ1195] Paper

Skutle, A., Bu, E.H., Jellestad, F.K., van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K., Dom, G., Verspreet, S., Carpentier, P., Ramos-Quiroga, J., Franck, J., Konstenius, M., Kaye, S., Demetrovics, Z., Barta, C., Fatséas, M., Auriacombe, M., Johnson, B., Faraone, S.V., Levin, F.R., Allsop, S., Carruthers, S., Schoevers, R.A., Koeter, M.W., van den Brink, W., Moggi, F., Moller, M. and van de Glind, G. (2015). Early developmental, temperamental and educational problems in 'substance use disorder' patients with and without ADHD. Does ADHD make a difference? Addictive Behaviours Reports, (2). Elsevier. pp. 13-18. DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2015.03.001 [O] Paper

Wapp, M., van de Glind, G., van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K., Dom, G., Verspreet, S., Carpentier, P., Ramos-Quiroga, J., Skutle, A., Bu, E.H., Franck, J., Konstenius, M., Kaye, S., Demetrovics, Z., Barta, C., Fatséas, M., Auriacombe, M., Johnson, B., Faraone, S.V., Levin, F.R., Allsop, S., Carruthers, S., Schoevers, R.A., Koeter, M.W., van den Brink, W. and Moggi, F. (2015). Risk factors for borderline personality disorder in treatment seeking patients with a substance use disorder: An international multicentre study. European Addiction Research, 21, (4), pp. 188-194. DOI: 10.1159/000371724 [RJ1007] Paper

Young, J.T., Carruthers, S., Kaye, S., Allsop, S., Gilsenan, J., Degenhardt, L., van de Glind, G., van den Brink, W. and Preen, D. (2015). Comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorder complexity and chronicity in treatment-seeking adults. Drug and Alcohol Review, 34, (6), pp. 683-693. DOI: 10.1111/dar.12249 [RJ1008] Paper

Kaye, S., Gilsenan, J., Young, J.T., Carruthers, S., Allsop, S., Degenhardt, L., van de Glind, G. and van den Brink, W. (2014). Risk behaviours among substance use disorder treatment seekers with and without adult ADHD symptoms. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 144, pp. 70-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.08.008 [RJ1006] Paper

van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K., van de Glind, G., Koeter, M.W., Allsop, S., Auriacombe, M., Barta, C., Bu, E.H., Burren, Y., Carpentier, P., Carruthers, S., Casas, M., Demetrovics, Z., Dom, G., Faraone, S.V., Fatséas, M., Franck, J., Johnson, B., Kapitány-Fövény, M., Kaye, S., Konstenius, M., Levin, F.R., Moggi, F., Moller, M., Ramos-Quiroga, J., Schillinger, A., Skutle, A., Verspreet, S., Iasp Research Group, van den Brink, W. and Schoevers, R.A. (2014). Psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of the IASP study. Addiction, 109, (2), pp. 262-272. DOI: 10.1111/add.12370 [RJ978] Paper

Yap, L., Carruthers, S., Thompson, S., Cheng, W.S., Jones, J., Simpson, P., Richards, A., Thein, H., Haber, P., Lloyd, A. and Butler, T. (2014). A descriptive model of patient readiness, motivators, and hepatitis C treatment uptake among Australian prisoners. PloS One, 9, (2), pp. e87564. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087564 [RJ1011] Paper

Fetherston, J., Carruthers, S., Butler, T., Wilson, D. and Sindicich, N. (2013). Rates of injection in prison in a sample of Australian-injecting drug users. Journal of Substance Use, 18, (1), pp. 65-73. DOI: 10.3109/14659891.2012.760008 [RJ865] Paper

Nielsen, S., Bruno, R., Degenhardt, L., Stoove, M.A., Fischer, J., Carruthers, S. and Lintzeris, N. (2013). The sources of pharmaceuticals for problematic users of benzodiazepines and prescription opioids. Medical Journal of Australia, 199, (10), pp. 696-699. DOI: 10.5694/mja13.11331 [RJ892] Paper

van de Glind, G., Carpentier, P., Levin, F.R., Koeter, M.W., Barta, C., Kaye, S., Skutle, A., Franck, J., Konstenius, M., Bu, E.H., van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K., Moggi, F., Dom, G., Demetrovics, Z., Fatséas, M., Schillinger, A., Kapitány-Fövény, M., Verspreet, S., Seitz, A., Johnson, B., Faraone, S.V., Ramos-Quiroga, J., Allsop, S., Carruthers, S., Schoevers, R.A. and van den Brink, W. (2013). The International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study: background, methods and study population. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 22, (3), pp. 232-244. DOI: 10.1002/mpr.1397 [RJ948] Paper

van de Glind, G., Konstenius, M., van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K., Carpentier, P., Kaye, S., Degenhardt, L., Skutle, A., Franck, J., Bu, E.H., Moggi, F., Dom, G., Verspreet, S., Demetrovics, Z., Kapitány-Fövény, M., Fatséas, M., Auriacombe, M., Schillinger, A., Moller, M., Johnson, B., Faraone, S.V., Ramos-Quiroga, J., Casas, M., Allsop, S., Carruthers, S., Schoevers, R.A., Wallhed, S., Barta, C., Alleman, P., Levin, F.R., van den Brink, W. and Koeter, M.W. (2013). Variability in the prevalence of adult ADHD in treatment seeking substance use disorder patients: Results from an international multi-center study exploring DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 134, (1), pp. 158-166. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.09.026 [RJ949] Paper

van de Glind, G., van den Brink, W., Koeter, M.W., Carpentier, P., van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K., Kaye, S., Skutle, A., Bu, E.H., Franck, J., Konstenius, M., Moggi, F., Dom, G., Verspreet, S., Demetrovics, Z., Kapitány-Fövény, M., Fatséas, M., Auriacombe, M., Schillinger, A., Seitz, A., Johnson, B., Faraone, S.V., Ramos-Quiroga, J., Casas, M., Allsop, S., Carruthers, S., Barta, C., Schoevers, R.A. and Levin, F.R. (2013). Validity of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) as a screener for adult ADHD in treatment seeking substance use disorder patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132, (3), pp. 587–596. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.04.010 [RJ947] Paper

Allsop, S., Fischer, A., Carruthers, S., Power, R. and Degenhardt, L. (2012). The link between amphetamine-type stimulant use and the transmission of HIV and other blood-borne viruses in the Southeast Asia region. ANCD Research Paper; 25. Australian National Council on Drugs, Civic Square ACT 2608. ISBN: 9788770182799 [R269] Paper

Carruthers, S. and Ryan, C. (2012). Hepatitis C treatment and injecting drug users in Perth Western Australia: Knowledge of personal status and eligibility criteria for treatment. Journal of Substance Use, 17, (1), pp. 32-40. [RJ901]

McBride, N., Carruthers, S. and Hutchinson, D. (2012). Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy: Listening to women who drink as a prevention starting point. A formative intervention research study. Global Health Promotion, 19, (2), pp. 102-114. [RJ690]

Nielsen, S., Bruno, R., Lintzeris, N., Fischer, J., Carruthers, S. and Stoove, M.A. (2011). Pharmaceutical opioid analgesic and heroin dependence: How do treatment-seeking clients differ in Australia? Drug and Alcohol Review, 30, (3), pp. 291-299. DOI: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2011.00302.x [RJ810] Paper

Treloar, C., Laybutt, B. and Carruthers, S. (2010). Using mindfulness to develop health education strategies for blood-borne virus prevention in injecting drug use. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy. pp. 1-12. [RJ544]

Nielsen, S., Bruno, R., Carruthers, S., Fischer, J., Lintzeris, N. and Stoove, M.A. (2009). Pharmaceutical misuse amongst drug treatment clients: patterns of use and associated harm. Drug and Alcohol Review, 28, (1), pp. A48. [RJ732]

McBride, N., Carruthers, S. and Hutchinson, D. (2008). Alcohol use During Pregnancy. Formative Intervention Research. Final Report. National Drug Research Institute, Perth, Western Australia. pp. 91. [T191] Abstract

Treloar, C., Laybutt, B., van Beek, I. and Carruthers, S. (2008). Broadening discussions of 'safe' in hepatitis C prevention: analysis of video recordings of injecting practices. International Journal of Drug Policy, 19, (1), pp. 59-65. [RJ500] Abstract

Carruthers, S. (2007). The Organisation of a Community: Community Action to Prevent Injecting Drug Use-Related Health Problems. Substance Use and Misuse, 42, (12), pp. 171-179. [RJ501]

McBride, N., Carruthers, S. and Hutchinson, D. (2007). Alcohol Use During Pregnancy. Formative Intervention Research. Annual Report. National Drug Research Institute. Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. [R204]

Carruthers, S. (2005). Hepatitis C treatment for injecting drug users in Australia. The C Files, (102). pp. 2-5. [UJ136]

Carruthers, S. (2005). Preventing hepatitis C: What can positive injectors do? Drug and Alcohol Review, 24, (2), pp. 193-198. [RJ436] Abstract

Russell, M. and Carruthers, S. (2005). The evidence base for preventing the spread of blood-borne diseases within and from populations of injecting drug users. In Stockwell, T.R., Gruenewald, P., Toumbourou, J. and Loxley, W. (eds.) Preventing Harmful Substance Use. The Evidence Base for Policy and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. [CH133]

Carruthers, S. (2003). Hepatitis C and Novice Injecting Drug Users. Monograph No. 6. National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology. National Drug Research Institute, Perth, Western Australia. ISBN: 1740672739 [M41]

Carruthers, S. (2003). The ins and outs of injecting in Western Australia. Journal of Substance Use, 8, (1), pp. 11-18. [RJ391] Abstract

Carruthers, S. and Arden, K. (2003). Hepatitis C prevention is a two way bet: the role positive injectors in preventing transmission. National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology, Perth. [T122]

Carruthers, S. and Loxley, W. (2002). Attitudes of novice heroin injectors to non-injecting routes of administration. International Journal of Drug Policy, 13, pp. 69-74. [RJ368] Abstract

Carruthers, S. and Loxley, W. (2002). Attitudes of novice injecting drug users towards non-injecting routes of administration to prevent the transmission of blood borne viruses. International Journal on Drug Policy, 13, (1), pp. 69-74. DOI: 10.1016/S0955-3959(02)00005-1 [RJ482] Paper

Carruthers, S., Boots, K. and Midford, R. (2002). Perceived and self-reported licit and illicit drug use among fishing industry workers on the mid-north coast of Western Australia. Drug and Alcohol Review, 21, (4), pp. 357-362. [RJ346] Abstract

Dwyer, R., Fry, C., Carruthers, S., Bolleter, A., Dolan, K., Donald, A., Byrne, J. and Loxley, W. (2002). ABRIDUS: The Australian blood-borne virus risk and injecting drug use study. Monograph No. 3. Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. [M39]

Loxley, W., Bolleter, A. and Carruthers, S. (2001). Talking about testing: opportunities for prevention in blood borne virus testing and vaccination with injectors. National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology., Perth, Western Australia. [T111] Abstract

Carruthers, S. (2000). Safer Using. In Jones, J. (ed.) National Hepatitis C Resource Manual. Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, Canberra. pp. 54-56. [CH94]

Carruthers, S. (1999). In the eye of the camera for prevention. Australian Hepatitis Chronicle, July, (2). [UJ84]

Carruthers, S., Loxley, W. and Bevan, J.S. (1998). Changing the Habit - why and how do users change their drug consumption patterns? Journal of Substance Misuse, 3, (1), pp. 50-54. [RJ240] Abstract

Loxley, W., Bevan, J.S. and Carruthers, S. (1998). Sex, gender, drugs and risk: The Australian Study of HIV and Injecting Drug Use. International Journal on Drugs Policy, 9, (4), pp. 255-262. [RJ290]

Carruthers, S., Ewers-Verge, J., Boots, K. and Midford, R. (1997). Investigations of alcohol and illicit drug use among a study group of west coast fishing industry workers. National Centre for Research into the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Division of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. [T67]

Carruthers, S., Phillips, M., Loxley, W. and Bevan, J.S. (1997). The Australian Study of HIV and Injecting Drug Use. Part II: Predicting exposure to Hepatitis C and hepatitis B. Drug and Alcohol Review, 16, (3), pp. 215 - 220. [RJ246] Paper Abstract

Loxley, W., Bevan, J.S. and Carruthers, S. (1997). Age and Injecting Drug Use Revisited: The Australian Study Of HIV And Injecting Drug Use. AIDS Care, 9, (6), pp. 661-670. [RJ268] Abstract

Loxley, W., Phillips, M., Carruthers, S. and Bevan, J.S. (1997). The Australian Study of HIV and Injecting Drug Use. Part I: Prevalence for HIV, hepatitis B And hepatitis C among injecting drug users in four Australian cities. Drug and Alcohol Review, 16, (3), pp. 207-214. [RJ247] Paper Abstract

Stockwell, T.R., Lenton, S., Loxley, W. and Carruthers, S. (1997). Submission to the Review of the WA Misuse of Drugs Act. National Centre for Research into the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Division of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. [R81]

Bevan, J.S., Loxley, W. and Carruthers, S. (1996). Getting on and getting off in Perth 1994. Report of the Australian Study of HIV and Injecting Drug Use (ASHIDU). National Centre for Research into the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Division of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. [T58]

Bevan, J.S., Loxley, W. and Carruthers, S. (1996). HIV Study Results. Drugwise, Winter, pp. 15-19. [UJ72]

Carruthers, S. (1996). Drug education - does it work? In Wilkinson, C. and Saunders, B. (eds.) Perspectives on Addiction: Making Sense of the Issues. William Montgomery Pty Ltd, Perth WA. pp. 90-96. [CH47] Abstract

Carruthers, S. (1995). Hep C. Letter to the Editor. Rolling Stone. [UJ81]

Carruthers, S. and Loxley, W. (1995). Hepatitis C and young drug users - are they about to join the epidemic? Australian Journal of Public Health, 19, (4), pp. 421-424. [RJ204] Abstract

Carruthers, S. and MacDonald, C. (1995). The availability of cigarettes to minors. Tobacco Control Journal, 4, (1), pp. 49-52. [RJ186]

Loxley, W., Carruthers, S. and Bevan, J.S. (1995). In the Same Vein. First report of the Australian Study of HIV and Injecting Drug Use (ASHIDU). National Centre for Research into the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Division of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. [T56]

Loxley, W., Carruthers, S., Wodak, A., Crofts, N., Dolan, K., Gaughwin, M. and Kaldor, J.M. (1995). Patterns of infection. National AIDS Bulletin, 9, (2), pp. 26-27. [UJ60] Abstract

Carruthers, S. and Loxley, W. (1994). Hepatitis C and young drug users. National Centre for Research into the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Division of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. [T42]

Lenton, S., Donoghoe, M., Loxley, W., Ovenden, C. and Carruthers, S. (1994). IDUs, needle and syringe provision and harm reduction: the English and WA experience. Summary discussion paper of material presented at the workshop held on 22 September 1993. National Centre for Research into the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Division of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. [R42]

Carruthers, S. and James, R. (1993). Evaluation of the West Australian School Development in Health Education Project. Journal of School Health, 63, (4), pp. 165-168. [RJ124]

Blaze-Temple, D., Carruthers, S., Binns, C.W. and Knowles, S.E. (1992). Effects of alcohol and tobacco on the foetus - women's knowledge and advice given by doctors. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2, (3), pp. 32-37. [RJ91]

Blaze-Temple, D., Carruthers, S., Knowles, S.E. and Binns, C.W. (1992). Doctors' advice to pregnant women regarding alcohol and tobacco consumption. Medical Journal of Australia, July, (157), pp. 67. [RJ77]

Carruthers, S. and Binns, C.W. (1992). The standard drink and alcohol consumption. Drug and Alcohol Review, 11, (4), pp. 363-370. [RJ83]

James, R. and Carruthers, S. (1992). From evaluation report to policy: A case study of the formative evaluation of SDHE, Western Australia. Journal of School Health, 63, (4), pp. 165-168. [RJ101]

James, R., Carruthers, S. and Cameron, I. (1992). Meetings, workshops and action plans. A formative evaluation of the School Development in Health Education Project in Western Australia. National Centre for Research into the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Division of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. [T27]

James, R. and Carruthers, S. (1991). The role of the school in the National Campaign Against Drug Abuse. Drug Education Journal of Australia, 5, (3), pp. 185-198. [RJ63]

Binns, C.W., Carruthers, S. and Howat, P.A. (1989). Thiamine in beer: A health promotion perspective. Community Health Studies, 13, (3), pp. 301-305. [RJ23]

Binns, C.W., Carruthers, S., Blaze-Temple, D. and Maggiore, P. (1988). Wine coolers and children's tastes. National Centre for Research into the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Division of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. [T4]

Carruthers, S. and Binns, C.W. (1987). Standard drink sizes for alcohol beverages - A pilot study. National Centre for Research into the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Division of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. [T3]

Carruthers, S. and Binns, C.W. (1986). Thiamine and the prevention of the Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. National Centre for Research into the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Division of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. [T1]

Flewellen, R., Lam, T., Carruthers, S. and Allsop, S. (2015). Clinician behavioural intention to perform screening and brief intervention for alcohol-related injury in the emergency department. Drug and Alcohol Review, 34. John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex. DOI: 10.1111/dar.12335 [UP35] Paper

Non-NDRI Publications

Nielsen, S., Bruno, R., Carruthers, S. and Fisher, J. (2009). Investigation of Pharmaceutical Misuse Amongst Drug treatment Clients. [T]

Treloar, C., Carruthers, S. and Laybutt, B. (2009). Using mindfulness to develop health education strategies for blood borne virus prevention in injecting drug use. Drugs Education, Prevention, Policy. pp. 1-12. [RJ]

(2006). Inquiry into Misuse/Abuse of Benzodiazepines and other Pharmaceutical Drugs. Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee - Parliament of Victoria. No. 223 Session 2003-2006. Authority Government Printer for the State of Victoria, Melbourne. ISBN: 0-9579188-9-5 [R]